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How to Use a Pipe Laser:  

Automatic Pipe Laser 

How to Use Leica Pipe Laser Piper 100 and Piper 200:
  
Features:    
 
Precision  
Engineered and designed to maintain its accuracy over time and temperature, the Piper projects a beam up to 200 meters (650 feet).  
 
Versatility  
Powered by a rechargeable Lithium-Ion battery, the Piper is the smallest, professional pipe laser ever made. When sitting level the Piper can self-level over its entire grade range, or can be placed inside the pipe for second day setups. In the manhole, in the pipe, or over the top, the Piper can work for you.  
 
Intelligence  
The cross-axis compensation function maintains the grade accuracy regardless of the roll of the laser up to three degrees. The Alignmaster™ feature (Piper 200) seeks and locates the target automatically for easy second day setups.  
 
Ruggedness  
Waterproof, shock and temperature tested, the Piper is built “construction tough” with a metal housing and shock absorbing bumper around the front window.  
 
Models There are two models of the Piper pipe laser described in this manual:  
 
Piper 100 - Red beam pipe laser  
Piper 200 - Red beam pipe laser with the Alignmaster™ feature.  
 
Three Basic Requirements:  
 
Refer to the information that follows when setting up and operating the Piper. (To set up for a specific application, see the “Standard Set-up Procedures in this manual.) You must always define the following three variables  
in any application.  
 
Grade - The amount of rise or fall over the distance of the pipe to be laid. Set the grade by entering the percent of grade into the Piper display.  
 
Elevation - The distance from the invert of the pipe to the laser beam. This distance is set by attaching the self-centering feet for the pipe size to be laid (The 150 mm, six inch feet are standard. All other sizes are optional.) or by adjusting the height of the piper on the Trivet Mount Assembly.  
 
Line - The position of the laser beam relative to the centerline of the pipe to be laid. Set the line by aligning the laser beam with the next manhole.  
 
Entering Grade  
 
To change grade, press an UP or DOWN arrow button to enter the grade required.  
The speed at which the grade changes will increase as the button in held.  
Press both the UP and DOWN arrow buttons at the same time to reset  
the grade to zero.  
To make large changes of grade, first press and release the STAR button when at the main operating screen. The plus / minus sign will appear as a reverse image.  
Press the LEFT or RIGHT arrow buttons to move the cursor (reverse image) to the desired digit.  
Press the UP or DOWN arrow buttons to change the plus / minus sign or the value of the individual digit.  
Press both the UP and DOWN arrow buttons at the same time to reset the grade to zero.  
Press STAR to exit when desired grade is displayed or wait ten seconds and the screen will automatically return to the main operating screen.  
 
Changing Line  
 
To change the line position, press a LEFT or RIGHT arrow button to move the beam to the position required  
The speed at which the line moves will increase as the button in held.  
Press both the LEFT and RIGHT arrow buttons at the same time to reset a the line to the center position  
 
Line and Grade Lock  
 
To lock the grade position, press and hold the STAR button, then press an UP or DOWN arrow button to lock the grade at the current value.  
To lock the line position, press and hold the STAR button, then press a LEFT or RIGHT arrow button to lock the line at the current position.  To unlock grade or line, repeat the same procedure.  
 
Alignmaster (Piper 200 only)  
 
Alignmaster is a function of the Piper 200 only. When the Alignmaster button is pressed, the Piper will begin a search routine to find locate and stop on the target. This function is normally used for second day setups to quickly find the beam in the previous day’s work.  
 
Procedure for using Alignmaster:  
 
Position the target assembly in the end of the last piece of pipe with the two reflective strips on the inside of the pipe, facing the laser. Roughly align the laser beam in the pipe to the target assembly Press the ALIGNMASTER button.  
 
When pressed the laser will scan left and right until the target is found. While searching the main operating screen is replaced with a blinking target indicating that Alignmaster is working.  
 
If the search routine is successful, the target will remain on the screen for an additonal five seconds (not blinking).  
 
The beam can now be fine positioned to the center of the target using the LEFT or RIGHT arrow buttons on the laser or the remote control.  
 
If the Alignmaster function cannot find the target, a question mark will appear next to the target to indicate “target not found”. This screen will appear for two minutes or until another button is pressed. The line position will then return to its original position.  
 
The Alignmaster routine can be interrupted at any time by pressing the Alignmaster button a second time. The line position will return to its original position.  
If the ambient light conditions are too bright for the Alignmaster function to operate properly, the target will be shown with a question mark and a sun icon.  
 
When the Alignmaster button is pressed the beam will appear to dim. This is normal. The beam is actually pulsing at a very rapid rate to better control the recognition of the target.  
 
Alignmaster is designed to work at distances greater than 10 meters (30 feet). Demonstrations or usage at shorter distances may not find the target.  
 
Setting up the Target Assembly  
 
Slide the required Target Insert into the Target Assembly. Loosen the locking knob and insert the target with the printed side of the target on the same side as the level vial.  
 
Place the Target into the end of the pipe. The reflective strips should be facing the laser, towards the inside of the pipe.  
 
Adjust the Target in the pipe until the bubble is centered in the level vial.  
Observe the Target. Adjust the pipe so that the laser beam is centered on the cross-hairs.  
 
Setting up the Trivet Assembly and Mounting Bracket  
 
Remove the four feet from the Piper, then attach the mounting plate by re-installing the feet.  
 
Attach the Piper with the mounting bracket to the Trivet Assembly and secure by tightening the 5/8”-11 knob and stud assembly to the bracket.  
 
Set the line. Place the Trivet Assembly so that the Piper is aligned with the pipe to be laid. Turn the knobs on the trivet plate until the bubble is centred in the Piper’s cross-axis level vial. Tighten the brass lock nuts to lock the feet in place.  
 
Set the grade. Enter the required grade in the Piper using the UP and DOWN arrows or enter large grade changes by first pressing the STAR button, then entering grade by individual digit. The Piper can self-level over its entire grade range. So it is not necessary to tip the laser to achieve grade.  
 
Set the elevation. Loosen the handle on the mounting bracket. Slide the bracket and laser up or down until the desired elevation is achieved. The slide bracket is made of a special material to ensure smooth movement. Tighten the handle to lock the elevation in place.  
 
Typical Second Day Set-up  
 
The following is a brief description of a second day set-up:  
 
Set the Grade. Press the POWER button to turn the unit on. The Piper remembers the last grade from the previous day. Check the display to ensure that the grade has not been changed.  
 
Set the Elevation. Plase the Piper where it was the previous day. Rotate the Piper until the bubble in the cross-axis level vial is centered.  
 
If the Piper is placed in the pipe, ensure that the proper feet are attached and that the cross-axis bubble is centered.  
 
Set the line. Follow the line of the pipe laid the previous day.  
 
Place the target asembly in the last piece of pipe laid and adjsut it so that the bubble is centered in its level vial.  
 
Adjust the line of the laser beam using either the LEFT and RIGHT buttons on the Piper or on the Remote. Press hte button until the laser beam is centered on the target.  
 
Piper 200 - Use the Alignmaster feature. Press the ALIGNMASTER button on the Piper or on the Remote to scan and locate the target. Use the LEFT and RIGHT buttons to fine adjust the beam to the center cross hair of the target.  
 
Standard Set-up Procedures:  
 
Pre-Poured Inverts  
 
The pre-poured invert must be set at the correct elevation and on the correct line position.  
 
Set the grade. Enter the required grade for the pipe to be laid in the display of the Piper.  
Set the elevation. Set the elevation by attaching the required size feet to the Piper. The Piper comes standard with 150 mm (6 inch) feet, and offers optional feet for 200, 225, 250 and 300 mm (8, 9, 10, and 12 inch) pipe. Set the line. Place the Piper in the invert and adjust the beam so it is  
in-line with the next manhole.  
 
Open Trench (Transit)  
 
In the open trench a transit is used to align the laser beam to the next manhole.  
 
Set the grade. Enter the required grade for the pipe to be laid in the display of the Piper.  
 
Set the Piper on the centreline of the pipe to be laid. Locate the line for the laser beam.  
1. Locate Point A. Place the transit so that it is behind the Piper and in line with the centerline of the pipe to be laid.  
2. Locate Point B. Look through the transit and lock it on-line with the next manhole point.  
3. Locate Point C. Tilt the transit down to see the Piper. Move the Piper until the pivot point on the top of the Piper is in line with the centerline of the pipe to be laid.  
 
Set the elevation. Move the Piper up or down on the (optional) trivet until the required height is set. (Choose the most convenient method for determining the cut-to-invert distance.)  
 
Set the line. Locate Point D. Using the Transit, place a new stake approximately five meters (15 feet) in front of the Piper. Look throught the transit and move the beam using the LEFT and RIGHT buttons on the Remote until the beam hits the stake and intersects the transit’s crosshairs.  
 
In the Pipe or On Top of the Pipe  
 
Place the Piper on top of the pipe when the beam cannot pass through the pipe, such as when it is filled with water.  
 
Set the grade. Enter the required grade for the pipe to be laid in the display of the Piper.  
Set the elevation. If the Piper is going to be placed inside the pipe, set the elevation by attaching the required size feet to the Piper. The Piper comes standard with 150 mm (6 inch) feet, and offers optional feet for 200, 225, 250 and 300 mm (8, 9, 10, and 12 inch) pipe.  
Set the line. Place the piper in or on the pipe and adjust the beam so that it is in line with the next manhole.  
 
Open Trench (Stringline)  
 
This procedure is best for shorter runs of pipe, typically those les that 90 meters (300 feet).  
Set the grade. Enter the required grade for the pipe to be laid in the display of the Piper.  
Set the elevation. Move the Piper up or down on the (optional) trivet until the required height is set. (Choose the most convenient method for determining the cutto- invert distance.)  
Set the line. Locate the line for the laser beam.  
 
a) Locate Point A. Place a range rod at the center of the next manhole point. (The rod must be plumb.)  
b) Locate Point B. Attach a stringline to the slot in the top f the Piper’s front bumper. Move the Pipe until it is in line with the centerline of the pipe to be laid.  
c) Locate Point C. Stand behind the Piper, close one eye, and hold up the stringline. Align the stringline with the range rod. Look down and align a new stake approximately 5 meters (15 feet) in front of the Piper. Use the LEFT and RIGHT arrow buttons on the Remote to move the beam until it  
hits the stake and intersects the stringline.  
 
Manhole  
 
Set the grade. Enter the required grade for the pipe to be laid in the display of the Piper.  
Set the elevation. Place the Piper in the manhole. Move the Piper up or down on the (optional) trivet until the required height is set. (Choose the most convenient method for determining the cutto- invert distance.)  
 
a) Locate Point A. Place a transit over the center of the manhole.  
b) Locate Point B. Look through the transit and lock it on-line with the next manhole point.  
c) Locate Point C. Hang a plumb bob from the transit. Move the Piper until the tip of the plumb bob is directly over the pivot point on the top of the Piper.  
d) Locate Point D. Tilt the transit down and use it to align a new stake approximately five meters (15 feet) in front of the Piper. Look throught the transit and move the beam using the LEFT and RIGHT buttons on the Remote until the beam hits the stake and intersects the transit’s crosshairs.  
 
Drop Manhole  
 
The trivet pole or the complete trivet assembly is designed to attach directly to a drop manhole t-bar assembly using a 5/8”-11 mount.  
 
Set the grade. Enter the required grade for the pipe to be laid in the display of the Piper.  
Set the elevation. Lower the preassembled Drop Manhole  
Assembly and Piper into the manhole until the T-bar is approximately 150 to 300 mm (6 to 12 inches) above or below the pipe.  
Ensure that the T-bar is level and perpendicular to the pipe. Tighten the wing nut on the T-bar to secure it in the manhole. Move the Piper up or down on the adjustable pole until the beam is approximately at the required elevation.  
Set the line. Adjust the beam so that it is in line with the next manhole.  
 
Over the Top  
 
The Over-the-Top Mount Assembly consists of a Scope and a mounting bracket for attaching the Piper to a tripod.  
 
Remove the four feet from the Piper, then attach the mounting plate (a) by re-installing the feet.  
Attach the Scope and mount (b) to the top of the Piper using the two screws and allen driver supplied with the scope.  
Attach the Piper to the tripod and tighten securely.  
Set the crosshairs of the scope on a target and then adjust the beam to the target using the LEFT and RIGHT arrow buttons on the Piper or Remote.  
 
Refraction  
 
Refraction happens when layers of air with varying degrees of temperature and humidity deflect light as it passes through it.  
 
Layers of air in a sewer pipe can refract a laser beam, causing it to bend downward or produce a “dancing” effect as the beam passes through to the target.  
 
Refraction is especially noticeable during hot or humid weather, but may also occur in extremely cold conditions when warm air from a newly opened trench mixes with the colder air.  
 
In these conditions, Leica Geosystems strongly recommends the use of a blower assembly to reduce or eliminate the effects of refraction. A blower mixes the different layers of air temperature and density inside a sewer pipe, thereby creating a uniform medium for the laser beam to pass  
through.  
 
Allow the blower to operate for at least 10 minutes before aligning the next pipe.  
Connect the blower to a power source, normally a 12-volt battery.  
Position the blower. Make sure that the air intake for the blower is not blocked. If possible, position the blower so the temperature of the air it draws in is approximately the same as the air inside the pipe.  
Determine whether to attach the nozzle to the end of the blower. If the pipe is less than or equal to 250 mm (10 inch), use the nozzle. If the pipe is greater than 250 mm (10 inch), you do not need to use the nozzle.  
Use clamps to attach the blower hose at the beginning of the pipe where the laser is located. Position the end of the hose at a 60° angle to force the air to swirl as it travels through the pipe.  
Apply power to the blower and let it operate.  
 
Accuracy Adjustment  
 
It is the responsibility of the user to follow operating instructions, and to periodically check the accuracy of the instrument and work as it progresses.  
 
The Piper is adjusted to the defined accuracy specification at the factory. It is recommended to check your laser ofr accuracy upon receipt and periodically thereafter to ensure accuracy is maintained. If  
your laser requires adjustment, contact your nearest authorized service center or adjust the laser using the following procedure.  
 
Do not enter this mode or attempt adjustment unless you plan to change the accuracy. Accuracy adjustment should only be performed by a qualified individual that understands basic adjustment principles.  
 
This procedure is easier when performed with two people, on a relatively flat surface and when using a trivet assembly. Refer to illustration on the previous page.  
 
Checking Level Accuracy  
 
Set up the Piper on the trivet assembly, level tihe Piper with the trivet feet, and set the grade counter to 0.000%,  
Set up a transit or automatic level as shown in the illustration approximately 30 meters (100 feet) from the Piper.  
Take grade readings approximately 30 meters (100 feet) on either side of the transit. These readings beome A1 and A2.  
Stand at the grade rod and note where the laser beam strikes the rod. Takes readings B1 and B2.  
Subtract B1 from A1 to determine C1, and B2 from A2 to determine C2.  
If C1 and C2 are the same, the Piper is accurately adjusted.  
If C1 and C2 are not the same, continue with the accuracy adjustment procedure.  
 
Access to the Adjustment Screen  
If power is ON, turn it OFF.  
Press and hold the DOWN and RIGHT arrow buttons, then press the POWER button to turn the unit on and enter the adjustment mode / screen.  
The adjustment screen will appear as illustrated here.  
 
Adjusting Level Accuracy  
When the accuracy of the Piper has been checked, and the amount of error is known, the beam position is adjusted using the UP and DOWN arrow buttons to increment the counter and move the beam to the desired position.  
Each count represents approximately two arc seconds. Therefore, five counts of the counter is approximately equal to 1.6 mm at 30 meters (1/16 inch at 100 feet).  
The Piper icon will blink to indicate that the unit has not reached the level position.  
The LEFT or RIGHT arrow buttons may be used to move the line during this procedure.  
 
Exiting the Adjustment Screen  
Press the STAR Button to accept, save, store the adjustment activity, and return to the main operating screen.  
Pressing the POWER button at any time before completing the procedure will turn off the unit, and will revert to previous adjustment information.  
 
Checking Line and Grade  
 
Line and Grade should be checked after the first 7.5 to 15 meters (25 to 50 feet) of pipe is laid to ensure the pipe is at the proper grade and line.  
 
Checking Line and Grade  
Set up a transit or automatic level as shown in the illustration.  
Take grade readings at the ends of the pipe using a grade rod.  
 
The grade readings must be taked from the same relative position in the pipe. The illustration shows the readings being taken from the invert of the pipe.  
 
Determine the actual grade of the pipe  
Subtract distance “B” from distance “A” to determine the “rise” of the  
pipe.  
Measure the horizontal distance “C” of the pipe.  
Divide the rise distance (A-B) by the horizontal distance (C), and then multiply this value by 100 to determine the percent of grade.  
Compare the measured grade to the grade dialled in the Piper  
Compare the measured grade to the grade shown in the display of the Piper.  
If they are equal, the pipe is at the proper grade.  
If they are not equal, repeat the procedure to ensure that a mistake was not made. If they are still not equal, check the accuracy of the Piper and the instrument being used.  
 
Troubleshooting  
 
Symptom Possible Causes and Solutions  
 
Roll Icon: The Roll Icon indicates that the Piper is in a position where its cross-axis level vial is not level. Reposition the Piper in the direction of the arrow until the vial is centered.  
 
Servo Limit: The Servo Limit Icon indicates that the Piper is in a position where it cannot achieve the entered grade. Reposition the Piper in the direction of the arrow until the unit can once again level itself.  
 
Temperature Limit: The Temperature Limit Icon indicates that the Piper is in an environment where it cannot operate without causing damage to the laser. This could most often be the result of direct sunlight. Shade the unit.  
 
Empty Battery: The Empty Battery Icon indicates that the Piper’s battery requires a recharge. Remove and replace or recharge the battery. The Piper uses an intelligent battery system that indicates the remaining battery charge. This is displayed at power up and at all other times on the main operating screen.  
 
Sleeping Piper: The Sleeping Piper Icon indicates that the Piper has been placed in standby mode with the Remote. Press any button to reactivate the Piper.  
 
Line and Grade will not change: The line and grade may have been locked. Press the STAR, then a line or grade button to unlock. See appropriate section of the manual. Line or grade may have reached its furthest limit. Line limits are indicated by the icon at the top of the display. Grade limits are from -10% to +25% of grade  
 
Target Question: The Target and Question Mark Icon indicates that the  
Alignmaster function (Piper 200) was not able to find the target. 
 
The target is missing or not positioned properly. Ensure the reflective tapes are toward the Piper. Reposition and try again.  
The laser beam may be blocked. Check for obstructions  
and try again.  
The target is too far from the Piper for Alignmaster to find the target. If possible, move the target closer to the Piper and try again.  
The Piper may be positioned so that the target is outside the physical limits of the Alignmaster seek area. Reposition the Piper and try again.  
 
Target, Question Mark, and Sun Icon: The Target, Question Mark and Sun Icon indicates that the Piper is in too bright of light conditions for the Alignmaster fucntion to find the target. Try shading to reduce the affects of the sun.  
 
Beam is not hitting the center of the target:  
 
This symptom may be caused by the following possible  
causes:  
The Piper of Target has not been set up properly or has been moved. Check and try again.  
The pipe has not beed correctly adjusted to grade.  
Check and try again.  
The pipe or water in the pipe is reflecting the beam. If possible, drain the pipe and try again.  
Conditions inside the pipe are refracting the beam.  
See section on refraction for remedy.  
The Piper is out of adjustment. Perform accuracy check.  
 
The Remote Control is not functioning:  
 
This symptom may be caused by the following possible  
causes:  
Line movement may be locked.  
The remote is too far from the Piper to activate the function desired. Move closer and try again.  
The Remote’s battery may be low. Replace the battery and try again.  
 
Permitted Use:  
 
The instrument projects a collimated beam of laser light for the purposes of alignment of gravity flow pipelines.  
The unit can be set up on it’s own feet, on a tripod or a trivet (both with optional adapter plate).  
The laser beam can be detected by viewing it on an opaque red target.  
The unit can only be powered by rechargeable Li-Ion battery.  
The instrument can be used with an IR remote control